Constitution of the Republic of Angola
|The political system||
The Republic of Angola is a Presidential Republic and has a multi-party system. The President of Angola is the Head of State and holds the Executive Power. The Angolan parliament, the National Assembly, exercises de Legislative Power.
José Eduardo dos Santos
The National Assembly is the Parliament of the Republic of Angola. The National Assembly is a unicameral body representing all the Angolans and expresses the sovereign will of the Angolan people and exercises the State´s legislative power and is composed by Members elected on the terms of the Constitution and the Law.The Members of the Parliament are elected by universal, equal, direct, secret and periodic suffrage by the national citizens over eighteen years old and residents on national territory, being equally considered all the Angolan Citizens living abroad due to its duties, studies, and illnesses or similar. The deputies of the parliament are elected through the system of proportional representation, for a five year term, according to the terms of the law.
The President of the Republic is the Head of State, the holder of the Executive Power and the Commander-in-chief of the Angolan Armed Forces. The President exercises the executive power, assisted by a Vice-President, Ministers of State and Ministers, and promotes and ensures the national unity, the independency and territorial integrity of the country. The President of the Republic represents the nation at the domestic and international levels, respects and defends the Constitution and ensures compliance with the laws and international agreements and treaties. The President also promotes and secures the regular operation of the Organs of the State.
|The judicial branch||
The courts are the sovereign body with powers to administer justice on behalf of the people. In exercising their jurisdictional duties, the courts are independent and impartial and subject only to the Constitution and law. The Higher Courts of the Republic of Angola are the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Audit Department of Exchequer and the Supreme Military Court. The courts guarantee and ensure compliance with the Constitution, Laws and all the legal provisions in force, protection of the rights and legitimate interest of citizens and institutions, and decide on the legality of administrative acts. The court verdicts are compulsory for all the citizens and legal persons and shall prevail over those from any other authorities. The judges are independent on the exercise of their duties and owe obedience only to the Constitution and law.
Membership in International Organizations: *UN (United Nations) *WCO (World Customs Organization) *WTO (World Trade Organization) *CPLP (Community of Portuguese Language Countries) *WHO (World Health Organization) *OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) *IMF (International Monetary Fund) *ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States)
Road transport Travelling on highways outside of towns and cities in Angola (and in some cases within) is often not best advised for those without four-by-four vehicles. While a reasonable road infrastructure has existed within Angola, time and the war have taken their toll on the road surfaces, leaving many severely potholed, littered with broken asphalt. In many areas drivers have established alternate tracks to avoid the worst parts of the surface, although careful attention must be paid to the presence or absence of landmine warning markers by the side of the road. Detailed Road Map of Angola *Luanda to Huambo: 516 km *Luanda to Lobito: 513 km *Huambo to Lobito: 315 km 2001 Data: *Total extension of the roads: 51,429 km *Paved: 4,349 km *Unpaved: 46,080 km Rail transport There are three separate unconnected lines: *The Luanda Railway, the northern railway, is a 424km single track, and it’s a cape gauge railway line from Luanda to Malanje, for normal passenger and freight service. *The Benguela Railway, the central railway, connects the Atlantic port of Lobito to the border town of Luau and to the railway networks of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, of Zambia and beyond. It’s 1,344 km cape gauge railway. *The Moçãmedes Railway, the southern railway, is a 907 km railway line between Namibe and Menongue. Renovation completed in 2012. Buses Due to the poor road infrastructure the bus services are limited. Some buses serve routes throughout the country, but they are usually very crowded. However, in the capital Luanda the private bus company TURA (Transporte Urbano Rodoviario de Angola) operates. Furthermore, most hotels will provide airport shuttles. Air transport Angola has a total of 243 airports, of which 32 are paved. The main ones can be found in the following map:
The economy of Angola is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, with the Economist asserting that for the 2001-2010 period, Angola’s annual average GDP growth was 11.1%. Since 2002, when the 27-year civil war ended, the country has worked to repair and improve ravaged infrastructure and weakened political and social institutions. Angola’s economic freedom score is 47,4, making its economy the 160th freest in the 2014 Index. Its overall score has improved by 0.4 point due to improved scores in fiscal freedom, investment and business freedom. Over the 20-year history of the Index, Angola has advanced its economic freedom by 20.3 points, one of the 10 best improvements. Angolans enjoy enhanced freedom in 7 of the 10 economic freedom categories, including monetary freedom and trade freedom. Angola’s economy outlook, by the World Bank: Angola’s economy appears to have gained momentum in 2014 with its gross domestic product (GDP) growing at 4.4% in 2014. Compared to other oil-rich countries in Sub-Saharan Africa oil revenue makes up a large share of Angola’s total revenues. For the first time since the 2009 crisis, Angola is estimated to have registered a fiscal deficit although much smaller than anticipated and mostly due to oil-price fluctuations. Such is a reminder of Angola sensitivity to oil-price shocks. The 2014 budget (adopted in 2013) is expansionary relative to 2013, with capital expenditures expected to increase by about 3 percentage points of GDP, to about 13% of GDP. Thanks to expanded agricultural output, lower food imports, as well as efforts of the Angolan central bank to stabilize the nominal exchange rate, inflation has continuously declined to a single digit in 2014. The year-on-year rate of inflation slowed to a multi-decade low of 8.9% in January 2013, and further down to 7.69% in December 2013. in www.worldbank.org
After years of civil war that destroyed the country’s communication and hospitality infrastructures, Angola has been living an economic growth period with the national government highly investing in the country’s reconstruction. Luanda is nowadays a business hub, attracting several international companies in various areas from finance, to engineering and tourism. Although business being the main purpose of tourism in the country, leisure has also been rising as new touristic routes are created and market players become increasingly competitive. To promote sustainable growth, the Angola government has designed a plan to boost the country’s touristic demand.
Valley of the Moon, Kalendua Waterfalls, Black Stones, Coatinha Beach, Tazua Falls, Luanda’s Island and Bay, Cameia National Park, Cangandala National Park,
|The most visited cities||
Luanda, Malanje, Namibe, Moxico